France National Overview

Updated in November 2016 by Jacques Moreau, Director at the CEFEDEM Rhône-Alpes, Lyon.

Overview of Higher Music Education System

Higher education relative to music in France is provided via two ministries, the National Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Culture and Communication.
Under the aegis of the National Education Ministry, 27 universities provide three-cycle training linked to theoretical knowledge of music which in turn leads to careers primarily in research and musicology and general music teaching (junior high schools, high schools, and universities). In addition, courses are provided in music management, choral conducting, sound design, and cultural mediation. Students may enter university upon completion of the high school baccalaureate. Degrees are the Licence (“Bachelor” – end of 1st cycle), Master (end of 2nd cycle) and Doctorat (end of 3rd cycle). It is possible to study musicology disciplines both within universities (Ministry of Education) and at the two national Conservatoires of Paris and Lyon (Ministry of Culture).
The Ministry of Culture and Communication oversees the professional higher education for performing arts. In music and in all cases, admittance to those higher education institutions is based on successfully passing a competitive entrance examination. Teaching is organised at three levels, according to the French Ministry of Labour: level 1 = EQF level 8; level 2 = EQF level 7; level 3 = EQF level 6). Given the specificities of the French system, the Ministry of Culture diplomas at level 3 (EQF level 6) are not fully equivalent to a Bachelor diploma, as only University can award that degree. Those level 3 diplomas are diplomas delivered by each institution, which need to be linked to a university Licence to be recognized as a full Bachelor.
Those musical higher education institutions are of different types, and deliver diplomas at the different levels (according to the French system):

  • Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse (CNSMD), one in Paris and one in Lyon, which deliver diplomas from levels 3 to 1 (all three cycles);
  • Pôles d’enseignement supérieur de la musique (PESM), which deliver diplomas at level 3, some of them deliver diplomas at level 2 by partnership with a university (mostly 1st cycle);
  • NB: One private institution is part of higher musical institution: the “Centre des musiques Didier Lockwood” (CMDL), able to deliver a 1st cycle diploma in Pop and Jazz, by partnership with the Pôle Supérieur Paris Boulogne Billancourt (PSPBB) which awards the diploma.
  • 3 CEFEDEM, which deliver diplomas at level 3 (1st cycle);
  • 9 CFMI, which deliver diplomas at level 3 (1st cycle) (NB: one CFMI – Lyon – offers also a 2nd cycle training);

These institutions all propose professional diplomas which prepare students for the following professions:

  • Performer (soloist, chamber musician, orchestral musician);
  • Composer, Conductor, Sound Engineer;
  • Music professors leading groups in nursery or primary schools;
  • Music professors providing individual or group lessons in music schools;
  • Regional conservatoires or the national conservatoires (music professor in CNSMD).

The Ministry also oversees the 36 regional conservatoires (CRR) and 105 "county"conservatoires (CRD). Some of the CRR are linked by partnership to a university which delivers a specific Licence to their students (level 3).
The Bologna system in France is completely implemented: The performers education since 2008 and the Music Teacher Education is since July 2016 part of Bologna.

Total number of institutions
  • 2 Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse (CNSMD), one in Paris and one in Lyon
  • 10 Pôles d’enseignement supérieur de la musique (PESM), some of those are closely linked to the neighbor CRR. They both offer performance and teacher training curricula.
  • NB: The Pôle Supérieur Paris Boulogne Billancourt is linked to the Centre des musiques Didier Lockwood, private institution, for the delivery of Pop&Jazz training.
  • 3 Centres de formation des enseignants de la danse et de la musique (Cefedem).  These institutions are training centres for music (one also for dance) teachers in municipal and regional conservatoires.
  • 9 Centres de formation des musiciens intervenants (CFMI), which are training centres for kindergarten and primary school music teachers.
Total number of music students
approximately 6.000 (to be updated)
Funding
  • Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse (CNSMD) are funded by the State.
  • CEFEDEM are funded by the State (75-80%), and by local authorities (25-20%).
  • CFMI are funded by the Ministry of Culture (65-70%), by the Ministry of Education (30-35%).  This breaks down to roughly 90-95% state funding and 5-10% regional funding.
  • Regional music conservatoires are supported only by local authorities funding.
Curricula
Curricula for professional music training are controlled by the State.
Genres Classical music (early to contemporary music): in all institutions
Jazz: In Paris Conservatoire and some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
Pop: in some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
Traditional and world music:  in some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
2-cycle system 1st cycle: 3 years (180 ECTS)
2nd cycle: 2 years (120 ECTS)
3rd cycle: 3 years (180 ECTS)
 
Note: Some Pôles d’enseignement superieur offer Master programmes together with a university; Some universities offer performance programs together with a CRR, outside of any accreditation from the Ministère de la culture.
Qualifications
1st cycle
  • Diplôme national supérieur professionnel de musicien (DNSPM) offered by: CNSMD, PESM. These institutions need a partnership with a university to allow their students to obtain a Licence in order to be recognised a Bachelor degree.
  • Diplôme d’État de professeur de musique (DE) (State teaching diploma) Offered by: CNSMD, PESM, Cefedem which allows 180 ECTS
  • Diplôme universitaire de musicien intervenant (DUMI); Offered by: CFMI
2nd cycle offered by CNSMD
  • Master
  • Certificat d’aptitude aux fonctions de professeur de musique (CA) (State teaching diploma). This "professional" diploma is also equivalent to a master in pedagogy, allowing 120 ECTS. 
3rd cycle offered by CNSMD
  • Doctorate
Note: the two CNSMD offer also an “Artist diploma” which is a post-master curriculum not awarding a 3rd cycle diploma. 
Specialisations In the Paris CNSMD:
  • Sound engineering students: sound engineer and or artistic director for musical recordings with or without visuals; soundtrack conception and/or execution; musical or artistic adviser; sound design; mixing for image-based production;
  • Vocal coaching students: vocal coaches, choral conductors, lyric conductors, musical and vocal advisors for lyric theatres;
  • Vocal students: to train ‘complete’ artists able to participate in different professional areas: opera, recital, chorus, vocal ensembles, pedagogy;
  • Musicology and analysis students: research, programme development, teaching;
  • Instrumental performance students: in the fields of early music, contemporary and classical instrumental disciplines and jazz, leading to the professions of soloist, chamber and orchestral musician, and accompanist;
  • Composition: composers, arrangers, orchestrators;
  • Conducting: conductors.
In the Lyon CNSMD:
  • Vocal coaching students: vocal coaches, lyric conductors, musical and vocal advisors for lyric theatres;
  • Vocal students: to train ‘complete’ artists able to participate in different professional areas: opera, recital, chorus, vocal ensembles, pedagogy;
  • Musicology and analysis students: research, programme development, teaching;
  • Instrumental performance students: in the fields of early music, contemporary and classical instrumental disciplines, leading to the professions of soloist, chamber and orchestral musician, and accompanist;
  • Composition: composers, arrangers, orchestrators, film composition;
  • Conducting: Choir conductors.
In both CNSMD: 2nd cycle teaching qualification - Certificat d’Aptitude (CA)

In the Pôles d’enseignement supérieur:
  • DNSPM: is a 1st cycle diploma for instrumental and vocal performance students, possibly in all genres, leading to a first level of entry into the professions of soloist, chamber and orchestral musician, accompanist, group musician.
  • DE or Diplôme d’Etat is a 1st cycle teaching qualification enabling graduates to teach individual and collective instrumental courses in music schools.
In the CEFEDEM: DE or Diplôme d’Etat.

In the CFMI: DUMI graduates are in charge of running collective music courses in kindergartens or primary schools.
Entry requirements
At the National Conservatoires:
  • Entry to 1st cycle: no specific pre-requisite and having successfully passed the admission tests;
  • Entry to 2nd cycle: Having been awarded a 1st cycle diploma, and having successfully passed the admission tests if coming from another institution.
At the Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and the CEFEDEM: prerequisites are; having been awarded a baccalaureate (final diploma for general education – EQF level 4), having been awarded a final pre-college music education diploma or the equivalent; and having successfully passed the entrance examinations.
At the CFMI, the entrance requirements include the baccalaureate and two years university, as well successful completion of a competitive examination.
% of students who continue with 2nd cycle No information available yet
3rd cycle
Students can only pursue the third cycle at a CNSMD. In both institutions, Doctoral programme exists (as a joint programme with several other institutions of higher education) for artistic research and/or research in musicology with increasing perspective on artistic research.
Credit point system
1st cycle diploma: 180 ECTS
2nd cycle: 120 ECTS
3rd cycle: 180 ECTS
Internationalization
Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse: Those two institutions have a very active and solid internationalization policy, counting many international partners.
Pôles d’enseignement supérieur: Those institutions are more recent. Some of them have already an increasing internationalization policy, some others are only starting.
CEFEDEM and CFMI: the INVITE program (Polifonia 2) showed how difficult it was for the teaching programs to develop internationalization. Nevertheless, some institutions have a selected or specific internationalization policy.
(to be completed and updated)
Quality assurance
1st cycle diplomas: DNSPM and DE
Those diplomas are, by law, registered in the Register National de la Certification professional (national registry for professional certification – the French qualification framework and registry).  The ministry of Culture, is responsible for the organization of the quality assurance process. An external commission, Commission Nationale d’habilitation, under ministry of Culture’s authority, habilitates for a certain period (generally 5 years) the institutions to award those diplomas. The process makes use of a self-evaluation report which is sent to a commission of outside experts. The outside experts do not receive any special training. They send a report to the Commission, which rules and sends an advice to the head of the relevant division of the ministry of Culture, who take a final decision. The quality assurance standards relate to the professions in which the national conservatoires prepare students and provide the knowledge and skills needed to exercise these professions. Standards are used to evaluate how the various aspects of the diploma correspond to knowledge and skills and how they are validated, in other words the ways in which the national conservatoires evaluate the competencies of student knowledge and skills in a particular discipline. Finally, the conservatoire must prove, in practical terms, that those who have been awarded diplomas are in fact exercising this knowledge and these skills within the music profession through a survey which involves contacting all those having completed their studies within the last 3 years.

NB: law recently introduced an accreditation process for those institutions (July 2016). Some changes might occur in that process in the coming years.

On an administrative level, the quality assurance process is informed by each institution on its financial, resources, employment situation. Some institutions are under private   status, even if having public funds. Other ones are public administrations (Établissements publics). Those are directly under the control of the Cour des Comptes (the French National Audit Office) which verifies the good usage of public funds approximately every ten years, in a two-fold manner:
  • The Office does an audit of accounts (to determine that spending of public funds is in conformity with the law). This is a juridical process and concerns the institution’s chief accountant;
  • The Audit Office evaluates the institution’s administrative management - how and for what public funds have been used, and with what results. The Office makes observations which are included in a preliminary report to which the institution responds. The final observations made by the Audit Office are, depending on the situation, provided to the institution via a letter of observation, to the Ministry via a ruling of the Audit Office’s First President, or to the public at large via a public report. In no way is a report from the National Audit Office considered to be a certification or a guarantee of quality assurance.
Employability
CNSMD:
  • Graduates should be able to integrate the profession at master level as soloists, chamber musicians, orchestral musicians, performers in professional troupes (opera, dance), composers, conductors (both orchestral and Gregorian choir), as well as professions relating to sound engineering. It is true however that in many instances auditions and/or notoriety (or even success in international competitions) take precedence over diplomas (orchestras, dance companies, opera troupes etc.);
  • CA graduates should be able to teach in the 36 regional conservatoires or state-recognised music schools.
Pôles d’enseignement supérieur:
  • Graduates should be able to integrate the profession at Bachelor level as soloists, chamber musicians, orchestral musicians, performers in professional troupes, composers, free lancers musicians;
  • DE graduates should be able to teach in state-recognised music schools.
CEFEDEM
  • DE graduates should be able to teach in state-recognised music schools.
CFMI
  • DUMI graduates should be able to teach in kindergarten and primary schools. Some of those graduates are engaged in music school, and then generally for beginners’ musical education.
Academic Year
From September to June.
Overview of the Pre-College Music Education System
Music education in France is divided in three levels.

Types of Pre-College Education

(1) Conservatoires à rayonnement régional (CRR)
There are about 36 CRRs that are mainly subsidised by the municipalities. CRRs are not institutions of higher education. They accept students from all ages and stages. Students have to take an entrance test or examination, depending on their level. Theory subjects are obligatory. There is a lack of orchestral - and ensemble training; often there are not enough students playing the required instruments to establish orchestras or ensembles.
The CRRs provide amateur training as well as preparation for professional music training. The level of teaching offered is high, and graduates may reach a professional level at the CRR itself (but no Bachelor or Master diploma).
Pedagogy training for graduates of CRRs and CRDs (see below) is provided through the higher education institutions controlled by the state: CNSMD, Pôles d’enseignement supérieur (PESM) and CEFEDEM (see overview of higher education system). After a full-time course, students receive a Diplôme d’Etat (1st cycle diploma) or a Certificat d’aptitude (2nd cycle diploma), which allows them to teach at every level, except for higher education. PESM and CEFEDEM CEFEDEM do not only provide diplomas for the classical music field, but also for jazz, pop music and folk or world music.
(2) Conservatoires à rayonnement départemental (CRD)
France knows about 105 CRDs. Their status is comparable to that of the CRRs.
(3) Music school
There are many types of music schools; they are locally funded. Some schools are open to students of all ages and stages; others have narrowed their scope to, for example, children or adults.
Theory subjects are obliged. Because schools often do not offer tuition in all instruments (or do not have students applying to study certain instruments), it is difficult to establish orchestras or ensembles.
(4) Private music schools
There are many private music schools. They do not only provide classical music training; there are schools specialised in pop and jazz, and schools specialised in a certain teaching method (e.g. Suzuki).
(5) Private tuition
Qualified teachers give private music lessons, outside of the general education system, and outside of any institutes.

Additional Information

In CRRs, CRDs and music schools, the teaching program is organized in three levels, according to a ministry of Culture official diagram:
1st level: level for beginners. Lasts from 3 to 5 years
2st level: intermediate level. Lasts commonly 4 years.
3rd level: in this level, a distinction is made between the pre-college education aimed at preparing students for HME and the pre-college education which does not lead to HME. For each of those two aims, a specific program is offered. The pre-college education aimed at preparing students for HME is only offered in CRRs and CRDs.

Music and Arts in General Education
In primary school (5 years), pupils receive about 80 hours a year of education in arts, sharing between music and visual arts.
In first part of secondary school (3 years) pupils receive about 70 hours a year of artistic education, half for music, half for visual arts.
In second part of secondary education (three final years) the artistic education is optional.
In this general education, some schools implement a specific program for musicians, with a partnership with the local music school or conservatoire. Generally two half-days (morning or afternoon) are devoted to music education. 
Students entering Higher Music Education
Most students come from CRRs and CRDs.
CRRs and CRDs (officially no higher education institutions) have many students who started within their institution, or students from other institutions. 
Special Facilities for Talented Students at Pre-College Level
A specific program allows schools to build a partnership with the local music school or conservatoire to offer pupils time for to music education. Generally two half-days a week are devoted to music education in primary school and first part of secondary school. For the end of secondary school a specific program leads to a specific option for musicians within the Baccalaureate: music disciplines are part of the education and weigh significantly for the award of the Baccalaureate.
There is a national youth orchestra. There are many competitions and festivals for talented students. 

Overview of Music Teacher Education System

Teacher education for music schools and conservatoires within the national scheme takes nowadays place in all of the higher musical education institutions: CNSMD, PESM, CEFEDEM, CFMI.
 
Note: It should be clarified that the term Conservatoire in France is a generic term which is equally given to music schools that take young children, as well as students on a pre-professional course. It is a term given to the two conservatoires nationaux supérieurs de musique et de danse in Paris and in Lyon which offer performance and teaching courses at a higher education level leading to professional qualification. The term Collège in France refers to secondary education for the 11 to 15 age group (1st part of secondary education).

Instrumental/Vocal Music Teacher Education

Institutions
Instrumental and vocal teacher training occurs at:
Région Ile-de-France
  • Paris: CNSMD
  • Paris et Boulogne Billancourt: Pôle supérieur Paris Boulogne Billancourt
  • Aubervilliers: Pôle Sup’93
Région Auvergne Rhône-Alpes
  • Lyon: CNSMD
  • Lyon: Centre de formation des enseignants de musique
Région Nouvelle Aquitaine
  • Bordeaux: PESMD Bordeaux Aquitaine
  • Poitiers: Centre d'études supérieures musique et danse
Région Provence Alpes
  • Région Grand Est
  • Strasbourg: Haute école des arts du Rhin
  • Metz: École supérieure d’arts de Lorraine, Centre de formation des enseignants de musique
Régions Bretagne et Pays-de-la-Loire
  • Nantes et Rennes: Le Pont Supérieur
Région Bourgogne – Franche Comté
  • Dijon: Pôle d'enseignement supérieur de la musique
Région Hauts de France
  • Lille: ESMD Nord de France
Région Occitanie (Pyrénées méditerranée)
  • Toulouse: Institut supérieur des arts de Toulouse
Région Normandie
  • Rouen: Centre de formation des enseignants de musique
Région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur
  • Aix en Provence: Institut d’enseignement de la musique, Europe Méditerranée
Structure
The structure of instrumental and vocal teacher training is:
  • 1st cycle: DE (Diplôme d'Etat)
  • 2nd cycle: CA (Certificat d’aptitude)
The 3 Cefedems offer only the DE.

The 10 Pôles d'enseignement supérieur now also offer three diplomas, which are in connection:
  • DNSPM (Diplôme National Supérieur Professionnel de Musicien), which is a performer diploma from the Ministry;
  • DE (Diplôme d'Etat).
  • Licence (Bachelor), awarded by the partner University;
The two CNSMD offer both DE and CA (Certificat d'Aptitude).
It normally takes a student:
  • 3 years to obtain a DE (July 2016 decree)
  • 2 years to obtain a CA (in CNSMD of Paris, it is possible to spread over time – between 2 and 5 years).
In order to be admitted to a DE course of study a student must hold a Baccalauréat and a final pre-college musical education, actually awarded by a CRR or a CRD (currently DNOP - Diplôme National d'Orientation Professionnelle, or DEM - Diplôme d'Etudes Musicales but legal changes are under discussion – November 2016 - concerning that final pre-college organization).
Curriculum
The curriculum of instrumental and vocal teacher training includes music training, educational training-teaching practice, music knowledge, educational knowledge (since July 2016, 1350 hours)
In the CNSM (for CA), curriculum includes music training, didactic, educational knowledge, teaching practice, general knowledge (900h).
Genres
  • Classical music (early to contemporary music): in all institutions
  • Jazz: In Paris Conservatoire and some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
  • Pop: in some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
  • Traditional and world music:  in some Pôles d’enseignement supérieur and Cefedem
  • CFMI, for their specific teacher training, are possibly receiving students from all genres;
Internationalization See above
Employability
After graduation recipients of the DE receive the title Diplôme d’Etat de professeur de musique.  The recipients of the CA receive the title Certficat d’Aptitude de professeur de musique. With regards to job opportunities, a DE is better to work in a music school, and a CA to work in conservatoires. These two diplomas are necessary to apply for a permanent job in the local authorities. 
Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
Continuing Professional Development are offered in Pôle d’enseignement supérieur (but not in all) and Cefedem. They can offer CPD for accessing to the teaching diploma (yearly program) or for development on specific subjects.
The Centre National de la Fonction Publique Territoriale (CNFPT), for the civil servants’ teachers, offers a wide range of CPD.
Some state or local authorities supported associations also offer CPD for all music teachers.  

Education for Music Teacher in General Education (primary and secondary school)

Institutions
Music teacher training in France for primary and secondary school teachers is divided by the level at which the teacher will work. For example:
  • Music teachers in primary schools = CFMI Centre de Formation des Musiciens Intervenants (nine institutions in total);
  • Music teachers in secondary school = Musicology University (around 25 institutions in total).
These music teaching trainings take place at universities (as CFMI are also connected with the University; see ‘Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Education’).
Structure
Music teachers in primary schools
The CFMIs have existed in France since 1984. There are nine CFMI in the country. In these centres, instrumentalists and singers study for two or three years to acquire the DUMI (Diplôme d'Université de Musicien Intervenant). The DUMI (Diplôme Universitaire de Musicien Intervenant) is a university title. The student must pass a certain number of exams in order to obtain it. There are both intermediate and final examinations. Music teachers at the primary level (CFMI) receive a DUMI after two years of study (1500h). With this title, one can work as a musicien intervenant at kindergarten and, at primary school, as an important member of the school team.
Here below the admission requirements for the two year course:
  • General studies: university entrance qualification plus two years of study at university in any field or two year’s work or training in a pedagogical or musical field;
  • Musical praxis: sound instrumental training.
The application includes a curriculum vitae and letter of application. Musical skill tests and knowledge tests can only be made after an invitation from the commission.

Music teachers in secondary school
Music teachers in secondary school receive a different training.  During 2008, as stipulated by the law for “priorities and curriculum in the future of school”, the Institutes Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres (IUFMs) became ‘schools within universities’. In 2013, 32 ESPEs (École supérieure du professorat et de l’éducation) were created to replace the IUFMs. They are part of universities. State defines specifications for professional teacher training within a national framework. The ESPEs meet a dual requirement: they reassert the place of teacher training courses within higher education and they define teacher training courses as alternate programmes of taught and work experience components. So the ESPEs, in line with government guidelines on education, are responsible for initial teacher training. They also implement in-service training programmes and take part in research on education. The ESPEs provide prospective teachers with appropriate training, supporting them to become successful candidates for the recruitment exams and to fulfil their role as education professionals.
The ESPEs are linked together by a network, allowing them to share information and projects their teacher training, research on education and innovative pedagogies. This network collaborates closely with the Conférence des Présidents d’Universités (CPU) to help structure the ESPEs.
At the end of their training, music teachers are awarded the CAPES (Certificat d'Aptitude de l'Enseignement Secondaire, diploma for teaching at secondary school), certificate which was created in 1974. In order to be admitted to the programme delivered by the ESPEs, candidates must have a university entrance qualification (baccalauréat) and they must have completed three years of study at university after the school leaving certificate.
Admission exams for CAPES: They are held nationwide and are organised in two phases: a written and an oral exam. The written exam consists of a test in music theory (notation and music dictation, commentary to extracts of three pieces of music, harmonics) and a second exam in which the candidate has to present a written paper on an interdisciplinary topic. The oral exam is divided in two phases: the first one is building a teaching situation from the official highschool program, and the second phase asks the student to arrange a vocal score with information tools, have it performed by a choir, and finally have an interview on the system and ethic of the discipline.
Admission exams for Agrégation: In the written exam the candidate has to hand in a paper on one of the topics published in the official journal. This is followed by an exam in music theory and the harmonisation of a tune. The oral exam consists of a teaching session in front of the examination board, conducting a choir, commenting on a piece of music and auditioning on the instrument.
Both the CAPES and the Agrégation take two years to complete.
Curriculum
Music teachers in primary schools
The curriculum for teachers in primary school is aimed for teaching training.  The curriculum is organised into the following eight modules:
  • Vocal training;
  • Instrumental training;
  • Other ways of expression;
  • Knowledge in sound;
  • Listening, analysing, history;
  • Pedagogy, psychology;
  • Knowledge in the environment;
  • Devising a project and translating it into action.
Practice at school takes place alternately with the courses and according to the different modules.
First year:
  • 4 days observation as an active teacher;
  • 2 weeks observation at a kindergarten;
  • About 20 contributions per week during one academic year;
  • 1 week observation at a primary school.
Second year:
  • 1 week for sketching projects for the year (work supported by lectures). About 20 contributions per week during one academic year.
  • An internship of 500 hours takes place during the three academic years in the institution where the candidate usually works.
Music teachers in secondary school
Curriculum is more theoretically based, classes include music history, composition, ear training, accompaniment, etc.
As was previously indicated, there are two ways of becoming a secondary school teacher: CAPES and Agrégation. Training for the CAPES (Certificat d'Aptitude de l'Enseignement Secondaire) lasts for 2 years. The first year consists of pre-studies as well as a first contact with classes and individual teaching situations. The Agrégation is accessible to all who hold a Maîtrise, a teaching certificate, as well as for teachers who have no permanent appointment. As with CAPES, the training lasts for 2 years.
CAPES and/or Agrégation are necessary qualifications to successfully complete training at an IUFM. Acquiring an IUFM diploma is a prerequisite for getting permanent employment as a music teacher. In the course of a year, the trainee teaches 4 to 6 hours at a secondary school (Collège) and at the same time attends lectures at the IUFM on two days of the week.
Employability
Music teachers in primary schools
Musical education in primary schools is up to the school teachers and local authorities (town or borough councils). School teachers can choose between music and art. Some local authorities may employ trained musicians who hold the DUMI (Diplôme Universitaire de Musicien Intervenant) to come and undertake musical activities in the schools. The DUMI is obtained upon completing a two-year course in which training is given by universities at special training centres called CFMI (Centres de formation des musiciens intervenants).  The musicien intervenant can work in kindergarten and primary schools, music schools, cultural associations, hospitals, old people’s homes, in jails, as part of a team for music and arts, introducing students to concerts, musical performances, the work of orchestras, theatres and social and cultural centres, etc.
In sizeable towns, primary schools and conservatoires put together a scheme by which some pupils may follow the conservatoire curriculum for two or three afternoons a week during school hours. This scheme is called classes à horaire aménagé and concerns relatively few pupils.

Music teachers in secondary school
Teaching in secondary education is done by a Professeur d’éducation musicale who has a university degree and teacher training qualification. The university degree is a licence/bachelor (3 years) + Master (2 years) in musicology + CAPES or Agrégation. The teacher training qualification differs between teaching in collège (CAPES - Certificat d’aptitude à l’enseignement secondaire – which one can enter for after a Master degree) and lycée (Agrégation, which one can enter for after a Master).
At the collège, an hour a week for music education (mostly music history and vocal workshops) is obligatory in the general curriculum. Music education at secondary level is given by general music teachers who have a university degree. In sizeable towns, collèges and conservatoires put together a scheme by which some pupils may follow the conservatoire curriculum for two or three afternoons a week during school hours. This scheme is called classes à horaire aménagé and concerns relatively few pupils.
At the lycée music education is optional. Baccalauréats (the final diploma of secondary education) have seven to ten subjects. If music is one of the main options, about three hours a week is spend on the subject. As is the case in the first step of secondary education (collèges, see above), general music education at secondary level is given by general music teachers who need a university degree.
Professional qualification for school teachers in the general education system is run by the Ministry of Education.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
Music teachers in primary schools
For Musicien Intervenant, as well as music teachers, see above.  It also sometimes occurs that CFMI provides occasional CPD opportunities.

Music teachers in secondary school
Unfortunately, for music teachers in collèges and lycées there are very few proposals from the Ministry of Education for CPD.
ESPÉ institutes are also responsible for further education and training of teachers. The courses offered support members of the teaching staff in developing new approaches and extending their professional knowledge to fulfil modern requirements in education. Further education and training programmes are organised by the individual academies.